Oppressed Peoples Online Word...The Voice Of The Voiceless

Dedicated to disseminating news & information not found in mainstream media....

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America

In The Color of Law (published by Liveright in May 2017), Richard Rothstein argues with exacting precision and

A 'Forgotten History' Of How The U.S. Government Segregated America...Click Link Below...full program

http://www.npr.org/2017/05/03/526655831/a-forgotten-history-of-how-...

fascinating insight how segregation in America—the incessant kind that continues to dog our major cities and has contributed to so much recent social strife—is the byproduct of explicit government policies at the local, state, and federal levels.

To scholars and social critics, racism in our neighborhoods has long been viewed as a manifestation of unscrupulous real estate agents, unethical mortgage lenders, and exclusionary covenants working outside the law. This is what is commonly known as “de facto segregated,” practices that were the outcome of private, not legal or public policy, means. Yet, as Rothstein breaks down in case after case, until the last quarter of the 20th century de facto paled in comparison with de jure (government-sponsored) segregation.

A former columnist for the New York Times and a research associate at the Economic Policy Institute, as well as a Fellow at the Thurgood Marshall Institute of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Rothstein has spent years documenting the evidence that government not merely ignored discriminatory practices in the residential sphere, but promoted them. The impact has been devastating for generations of African-Americans who were denied the right to live where they wanted to live, and raise and school their children where they thought best.

While the Fair Housing Act of 1968 provided modest enforcement to prevent future discrimination, it did nothing to reverse or undo a century’s worth of state-sanctioned violations of the Bill of Rights, particularly the Thirteenth Amendment which banned treating former slaves as second-class citizens. So the structural conditions established by 20th century federal policy endure to this day.

At every step of the way, Rothstein demonstrates, the government and our courts upheld racist policies to maintain the separation of whites and blacks—leading to the powder keg that has defined Ferguson, Baltimore, Charleston, and Chicago. The Color of Law is not a tale of Red versus Blue states. It is sadly the story of America in all of its municipalities, large and small, liberal and reactionary.

As William Julius Wilson has stated: “The Color of Law is one of those rare books that will be discussed and debated for many decades.”

What readers of The Color of Law manuscript have written:

“Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law is one of those rare books that will be discussed and debated for many decades. Based on careful analyses of multiple historical documents, Rothstein has presented what I consider to be the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation.” (William Julius Wilson, author of The Truly Disadvantaged)

“Richard Rothstein’s The Color of Law offers an original and insightful explanation of how government policy in the United States intentionally promoted and enforced residential racial segregation. The central premise of his argument, which calls for a fundamental reexamination of American constitutional law, is that the Supreme Court has failed for decades to understand the extent to which residential racial segregation in our nation is not the result of private decisions by private individuals, but is the direct product of unconstitutional government action. The implications of his analysis are revolutionary.” (Geoffrey R. Stone, author of Sex and the Constitution)

“A masterful explication of the single most vexing problem facing black America: the concentration of the poor and middle class into segregated neighborhoods. Rothstein documents the deep historical roots and the continuing practices in law and social custom that maintain a profoundly un-American system holding down the nation’s most disadvantaged citizens.” (Thomas B. Edsall, author of The Age of Austerity)

“Through meticulous research and powerful human stories, Richard Rothstein reveals a history of racism hiding in plain sight and compels us to confront the consequences of the intentional, decades-long governmental policies that created a segregated America. The American landscape will never look the same to readers of this important book.” (Sherrilyn A. Ifill, president of the NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund)

“Racial segregation does not just happen; it is made. Written with a spatial imagination, this exacting and exigent book traces how public policies across a wide spectrum―including discriminatory zoning, taxation, subsidies, and explicit redlining―have shaped the racial fracturing of America. At once analytical and passionate, The Color of Law discloses why segregation has persisted, even deepened, in the post–civil rights era, and thoughtfully proposes how remedies might be pursued. A must-read.” (Ira Katznelson, author of the Bancroft Prize–winning Fear Itself)

“This wonderful, important book could not be more timely. It shows how federal, state, and local government housing policies made the United States two societies, separate and unequal, and used public power to impose unfair, profoundly damaging injuries on African Americans. The book is filled with history that’s been deliberately buried even as its tragic consequences make headlines in Ferguson, Tulsa, Dallas, Staten Island, Charleston―and throughout the country. With its clarity and breadth, the book is literally a page-turner: once one begins on this journey with Richard Rothstein, one is not likely to stop before the conclusion, with a determination that the injustices described must be redressed fully and immediately.” (Florence Roisman, William F. Harvey Professor of Law, Indiana University)

A 'Forgotten History' Of How The U.S. Government Segregated America

A 'Forgotten History' Of How The U.S. Government Segregated America

35:40
  • Download
  • /b>iframe src="https://www.npr.org/player/embed/526655831/526764151" width="100%" height="290" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" title="NPR embedded audio player">
  • Transcript

Listen To Full Program:  http://www.npr.org/programs/fresh-air/

Federal housing policies created after the Depression ensured that African-Americans and other people of color were left out of the new suburban communities — and pushed instead into urban housing projects, such as Detroit's Brewster-Douglass towers. Paul Sancya/AP hide caption

toggle caption
Paul Sancya/AP

Federal housing policies created after the Depression ensured that African-Americans and other people of color were left out of the new suburban communities — and pushed instead into urban housing projects, such as Detroit's Brewster-Douglass towers.

Paul Sancya/AP

In 1933, faced with a housing shortage, the federal government began a program explicitly designed to increase — and segregate — America's housing stock. Author Richard Rothstein says the housing programs begun under the New Deal were tantamount to a "state-sponsored system of segregation."


The government's efforts were "primarily designed to provide housing to white, middle-class, lower-middle-class families," he says. African-Americans and other people of color were left out of the new suburban communities — and pushed instead into urban housing projects.

Rothstein's new book, The Color of Law, examines the local, state and federal housing policies that mandated segregation. He notes that the Federal Housing Administration, which was established in 1934, furthered the segregation efforts by refusing to insure mortgages in and near African-American neighborhoods — a policy known as "redlining." At the same time, the FHA was subsidizing builders who were mass-producing entire subdivisions for whites — with the requirement that none of the homes be sold to African-Americans.






Rothstein says these decades-old housing policies have had a lasting effect on American society. "The segregation of our metropolitan areas today leads ... to stagnant inequality, because families are much less able to be upwardly mobile when they're living in segregated neighborhoods where opportunity is absent," he says. "If we want greater equality in this society, if we want a lowering of the hostility between police and young African-American men, we need to take steps to desegregate."

 

Views: 174

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on May 3, 2017 at 8:24pm

On how the Federal Housing Administration justified discrimination

The Color of Law
The Color of Law

A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America

by Richard Rothstein

Hardcover, 345 pages |

purchase

Buy Featured Book

Title
The Color of Law
Subtitle
A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America
Author
Richard Rothstein

Your purchase helps support NPR programming. How?

The Federal Housing Administration's justification was that if African-Americans bought homes in these suburbs, or even if they bought homes near these suburbs, the property values of the homes they were insuring, the white homes they were insuring, would decline. And therefore their loans would be at risk.

There was no basis for this claim on the part of the Federal Housing Administration. In fact, when African-Americans tried to buy homes in all-white neighborhoods or in mostly white neighborhoods, property values rose because African-Americans were more willing to pay more for properties than whites were, simply because their housing supply was so restricted and they had so many fewer choices. So the rationale that the Federal Housing Administration used was never based on any kind of study. It was never based on any reality.

On how federal agencies used redlining to segregate African-Americans

The term "redlining" ... comes from the development by the New Deal, by the federal government of maps of every metropolitan area in the country. And those maps were color-coded by first the Home Owners Loan Corp. and then the Federal Housing Administration and then adopted by the Veterans Administration, and these color codes were designed to indicate where it was safe to insure mortgages. And anywhere where African-Americans lived, anywhere where African-Americans lived nearby were colored red to indicate to appraisers that these neighborhoods were too risky to insure mortgages.

On the FHA manual that explicitly laid out segregationist policies

It was in something called the Underwriting Manual of the Federal Housing Administration, which said that "incompatible racial groups should not be permitted to live in the same communities." Meaning that loans to African-Americans could not be insured.

In one development ... in Detroit ... the FHA would not go ahead, during World War II, with this development unless the developer built a 6-foot-high wall, cement wall, separating his development from a nearby African-American neighborhood to make sure that no African-Americans could even walk into that neighborhood.

The Underwriting Manual of the Federal Housing Administration recommended that highways be a good way to separate African-American from white neighborhoods. So this was not a matter of law, it was a matter of government regulation, but it also wasn't hidden, so it can't be claimed that this was some kind of "de facto" situation. Regulations that are written in law and published ... in the Underwriting Manual are as much a de jure unconstitutional expression of government policy as something written in law.

On the long-term effects of African-Americans being prohibited from buying homes in suburbs and building equity

Today African-American incomes on average are about 60 percent of average white incomes. But African-American wealth is about 5 percent of white wealth. Most middle-class families in this country gain their wealth from the equity they have in their homes. So this enormous difference between a 60 percent income ratio and a 5 percent wealth ratio is almost entirely attributable to federal housing policy implemented through the 20th century.

African-American families that were prohibited from buying homes in the suburbs in the 1940s and '50s and even into the '60s, by the Federal Housing Administration, gained none of the equity appreciation that whites gained. So ... the Daly City development south of San Francisco or Levittown or any of the others in between across the country, those homes in the late 1940s and 1950s sold for about twice national median income. They were affordable to working-class families with an FHA or VA mortgage. African-Americans were equally able to afford those homes as whites but were prohibited from buying them. Today those homes sell for $300,000 [or] $400,000 at the minimum, six, eight times national median income. ...

So in 1968 we passed the Fair Housing Act that said, in effect, "OK, African-Americans, you're now free to buy homes in Daly City or Levittown" ... but it's an empty promise because those homes are no longer affordable to the families that could've afforded them when whites were buying into those suburbs and gaining the equity and the wealth that followed from that.

The white families sent their children to college with their home equities; they were able to take care of their parents in old age and not depend on their children. They're able to bequeath wealth to their children. None of those advantages accrued to African-Americans, who for the most part were prohibited from buying homes in those suburbs.

On how housing projects went from being for white middle- and lower-middle-class families to being predominantly black and poor

Public housing began in this country for civilians during the New Deal and it was an attempt to address a housing shortage; it wasn't a welfare program for poor people. During the Depression, no housing construction was going on. Middle-class families, working-class families were losing their homes during the Depression when they became unemployed and so there were many unemployed middle-class, working-class white families and this was the constituency that the federal government was most interested in. And so the federal government began a program of building public housing for whites only in cities across the country. The liberal instinct of some Roosevelt administration officials led them to build some projects for African-Americans as well, but they were always separate projects; they were not integrated. ...

The white projects had large numbers of vacancies; black projects had long waiting lists. Eventually it became so conspicuous that the public housing authorities in the federal government opened up the white-designated projects to African-Americans, and they filled with African-Americans. At the same time, industry was leaving the cities, African-Americans were becoming poorer in those areas, the projects became projects for poor people, not for working-class people. They became subsidized, they hadn't been subsidized before. ... And so they became vertical slums that we came to associate with public housing. ...

The vacancies in the white projects were created primarily by the Federal Housing Administration program to suburbanize America, and the Federal Housing Administration subsidized mass production builders to create subdivisions that were "white-only" and they subsidized the families who were living in the white housing projects as well as whites who were living elsewhere in the central city to move out of the central cities and into these white-only suburbs. So it was the Federal Housing Administration that depopulated public housing of white families, while the public housing authorities were charged with the responsibility of housing African-Americans who were increasingly too poor to pay the full cost of their rent.

Radio producers Sam Briger and Thea Chaloner and Web producers Bridget Bentz, Molly Seavy-Nesper and Tanya Ballard Brown contributed to this story.

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on May 3, 2017 at 9:43pm

Anne Braden

A lifelong activist, Braden became embroiled in one of Louisville’s most notorious incidents of race-based violence when she and her husband, both white, were asked to buy a house in an all-white neighborhood in order to resell it to a black family. The house was bombed, and the Bradens were branded Communist conspirators and tried for sedition in 1954.

  1. Comments
  1. Abu Ruyaa
  1. A lifelong activist, Braden became embroiled in one of…
  1. ket.org

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on May 3, 2017 at 9:43pm

http://storage.ning.com/topology/rest/1.0/file/get/2394167843?profile=original

We desperately need your help ...$1.00 per month could make a huge  difference....donate today

Donate at paypal: https://www.paypal.com/home

To:  jabal51@hotmail.com

Send To:  LDC  LLC,

P.O. Box 1241,

Conley, Ga. 30288-7018


Thank You For Your Support 

http://oppressedpeoplesonlineword.ning.com/

Oppressed Peoples Online Word Google Plus

Facebook:  https://www.facebook.com/Bilal.Mahmud?ref=tn_tnmn

OPOW :

Abu Ruyaa (AbuRuyaa) on Twitter

https://twitter.com/AbuRuyaa
The latest from Abu Ruyaa (@AbuRuyaa). Oppressed Peoples Online Word.
Thank You For Your Support:

Bilal Mahmud Testifies Before Congress 2004 Congressman John Conyer...

Bilal Mahmud On History Of Al-Farooq Masjid Of Atlanta, Ga

The Voice Of The Voiceless....A Rare Breed!

Comment

You need to be a member of Oppressed Peoples Online Word...The Voice Of The Voiceless to add comments!

Join Oppressed Peoples Online Word...The Voice Of The Voiceless

Forum

DR. KING'S LAST SPEECH: "AMERICA TOO IS GOING TO HELL" 1 Reply

DISCLAIMER: This is the last speech that Dr. King wrote, he was planning to deliver this speech during a Sunday sermon on April 7, 1968. He was shot and killed before he had a chance to deliver this…Continue

Started by Siebra Muhammad in Sample Title. Last reply by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص Mar 19, 2019.

VISITING OUR PAST (INTERVIEWS WITH FORMER SLAVES FROM NORTH CAROLINA) 1 Reply

Visiting Our PastBy Rob Neufeld Every day we see and feel the beauty of the world and of humanity. But history sometimes shows us how wrong things can go, and we wonder why we are vulnerable to such…Continue

Started by Siebra Muhammad in Sample Title. Last reply by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص Mar 19, 2019.

RECIPE FOR DESTRUCTION - THE PRISON SYSTEM (A MUST READ) 1 Reply

RECIPE FOR DESTRUCTION--THE PRISON SYSTEMStep 1Start with 2 pounds of Drug WarMix vigorously with 2 cups unfair sentencing laws and 1 cup stop-and-friskDump in 1 large bag of minorities (Whenever…Continue

Started by Siebra Muhammad in Sample Title. Last reply by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص Mar 19, 2019.

DONALD J. TRUMP IS THE MODERN DAY NIMROD OF YOUR BIBLE!!!

DISCLAIMER: This is not a political argument for or against Donald Trump. This is a result of a strong series of thoughts that I can not shake and felt compelled to investigate and write.Brothers and…Continue

Started by Siebra Muhammad in Sample Title Mar 19, 2019.

Badge

Loading…

Groups

© 2020   Created by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service