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African American History: Ibrahim Omar Franz Fanon The French thinker who fought against colonialism in Algeria and the world..... رحمة الله عليه

Fanon saw violence as the only language colonizers truly understand. Through violence, imperialists instilled a sense of inferiority in the colonized, and it was therefore through violence that the colonized could regain a sense of self, a sense of culture, and the physical reality of statehood

Omar Frantz Fanon

الله يرحمه ويغفر ذنوبه

Fanon's basic assumption—that colonialism is a machine of “naked violence,” which “only gives in when confronted with greater violence”—had become uncontroversial across Asia and Africa wherever armed mutinies erupted against Western colonialists.

What is the anti colonial discourse of Fanon?
In turn, Fanon effectively argues that anti-colonial violence not only expels the coloniser from the colonised territory but also from the colonised mind. It becomes a cathartic moment of discrediting the coloniser's orientalist characterisation of the colonised subject.
Frantz Fanon. Wikimedia Commons
Frantz Fanon was born in 1925 in Fort de France, Martinique, to a petty-bourgeois family

Frantz Fanon is a French-Algerian physician, activist and philosopher born in 1925, who joined the Algerian National Liberation Front and wrote about the issues of colonialism and its de-colonization, looking at the revolution of the peoples and the dismantling of the alienation (social alienation) that colonialism causes to its victims.

His ideas inspired militants in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and marked the first field of "postcolonial studies" focusing on what the colonizer left to exploit indigenous peoples in colonized lands, and his death in the flower of his youth in 1961.


Fanon joined the French army in World War II and was a turning point in his thought (social media)

Birth and upbringing

Frantz Fanon was born on July 20, 1925 in Fort-de-France on the Caribbean island of Martinique, part of the French Overseas Territory.

His family belonged to petty bourgeoisie: his father, Casimir Fanon, worked as a customs inspector, his mother Eleonor Felicia Medlis was a merchant, and Franz was fifth among eight brothers and sisters.

In a biography of his life, his brother Joby Fanon describes the atmosphere of his upbringing, where their father was deeply convinced of the importance of studying and urged them not to be satisfied with what they received from teachers.

Despite the family's financially comfortable situation, Jobe describes the city that embraced Frantz's childhood and adolescence as a "failed city" where the manifestations of poverty were shocking.

Study and training

Fanon studied in his hometown of Schwilshire High School and became addicted to reading in its library, where he became acquainted with the writer and politician Amy Césaire, who was then a teacher there, although he did not study with him directly.

He applied early for his high school diploma, decided to retreat in the library and focus on reading to Renaissance writers, and his brother Jobi describes how Franz used to memorize by heart long passages of these readings.

Franz succeeded in the written part, but was initially excluded from the oral part of the exam, and later obtained his high school diploma after returning from his first attempt to volunteer in the Free French Forces, an attempt he began on July 13, 1943 despite the opposition of those around him, as he viewed the war in his environment as "a war between whites that does not mean anything to the colonizers", but justified his position by saying, "Wherever freedom is affected, I feel that I am concerned, we are all concerned no matter what. Our colors were white, black or yellow."

Coverage of World War II reached Martinique on radio and followed closely by Fanon, then he joined the Fifth Battalion of the Free French Forces and sailed with them on March 12, 1944, to North Africa.

Although he and his comrades were tired of training and routine military instructions "because they had joined the army to fight the Germans", he proved his worth on the battlefield and was praised and encouraged by his commanders, but he was wounded during the battles near Geneva, spent a period between treatment and convalescence, and returned to the front.

Fanon was discharged on May 18, 1945, after France's war against Nazism was completed, returned to Martinique on September 12, 1945, and during his conscription experience experienced anti-black racism and became more aware of colonial issues.

After returning from the battlefront, Fanon received a scholarship that was available to those who fought in the war, then moved to Lyon, France, where he began studying medicine, and in addition to his studies, he continued to attend lectures in philosophy and literature, and participated in student activism.

Frantz Fanon Lives! 60 Years After His Death, Fanon’s Ideas Remain the Weapons of the Oppressed
Fanon announced his resignation from the medical profession in protest against colonial practices, so France decided to exile him from Algeria (foreign press)

The experience of Algeria

With his graduation as a doctor, he wanted to work in his native Martinique, and because there were no vacancies, he tried to join a sub-Saharan African country, but eventually moved to work at the Blida Hospital in Algeria, where he arrived in December 1953, about a year before the outbreak of the liberation revolution on November 1, 1954.

Coming from a colonial country, he recognized himself in another country occupied by the same colonial power, according to his wife, Josie Fanon, and his work as a psychiatrist and his contact with patients and nurses gave him an understanding of the situation, and soon he saw firsthand the psychological effects of colonialism, not only on its victims under oppression and torture, but also on its soldiers involved in torture and atrocities.

Fanon worked for years in the treatment of the mentally ill, and applied new methods in psychotherapy, such as the abolition of the use of the "jacket of the insane" that was widely used before the discovery of neurological tranquilizers, and adopted means related to the culture of patients such as games, singing and stories, and rejected the racist medical concepts that prevailed at the time, such as relying on the shape of the skull and others.

In addition to his medical mission, he worked as a scalpel in the reflection and anatomy of the phenomena of colonial reality with which he was in contact, and the young doctor gradually began to approach the National Liberation Front, with which he had contacts and contributions, and ended up resigning from the medical profession through a letter in which he criticized the practices of colonialism and its "hatred" against Algerians.

"I can say that I have been placed at this crossroads and I stood terrified of the magnitude of the alienation suffered by the inhabitants of this country, and if psychology is the medical means that seeks to allow man not to feel alienated in his environment, I must confirm that the Arab who is always alienated in his country lives in a state of absolute uprooting of personality," he said

After his resignation, the colonial authorities issued a decision to expel him from Algeria, so he joined the National Liberation Front in Tunisia and worked for its media outlets, including the newspapers "Algerian resistance" and "El Moudjahid".

Fanon assumed diplomatic missions for the Front, where he was its representative in sub-Saharan African countries, during which time he traveled with a passport issued by the Kingdom of Libya in the name of "Omar Ibrahim Fanon".

Map of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisa and Libya:  Political Map of Algeria - Nations Online Project

Frantz Fanon vector sketch illustration
Fanon was keen to convince the colonizer that there was no favor on him from the colonizer to achieve his independence (Shutterstock)

Against racism

The shape of the book "Black Skin... White Masks", published by Fanon at the age of 27 in 1952, is his first intellectual work, and the book shows his ability to use the tools of different fields of knowledge, such as psychoanalysis, philosophy, linguistics, literature and early concepts of the "Negro" current to analyze the state of collective neurosis caused by colonialism.

In the book, Fannon attempts to understand the foundations of anti-black racism in consciousness and society, and his ideas about anti-black racism and how to "shape and then distort" the subjectivity of both black and white together represented a basic precursor to understanding the multiple levels of colonial oppression and the conditions for overcoming it.

Later, the experience of Algeria and sub-Saharan countries broadened Fanon's interests, and after focusing on anti-black racism in his first work, he made a shift with his 1961 book The Wretched on Earth, which addressed colonialism as a broader issue affecting the oppressed in the southern part of the world.

From patriotism to humanity

Fanon seemed keen to convince the colonizer that colonialism had no favor on him in the path to independence, since "what the colonizer obtains through political and armed struggle is not the result of the colonizer's goodwill or the goodness of his heart," but rather a translation of the fact that the colonial power now sees postponing concessions as impossible.

He did not fail to pay attention to the loopholes that enable colonialism to continue, and he seemed suspicious of what the national parties are witnessing from "the coexistence of the will to break colonialism with another will, which is friendly understanding with it", and even happens, as he says, that colonialism leaves areas that have not been sufficiently exposed to the tremors of the struggle for freedom, and we find "cunning intellectuals" maintaining the behaviors and forms they received during the experience of the colonial bourgeoisie as they are unchanged.

Fannon understands the invocation of national and local identities in resisting colonialism, but stresses the need to go beyond patriotism in the end towards a human struggle, because struggle is what makes change that is not brought about by simply "showing a culture or traditions from the past", colonialism "will not feel shame if we present unknown cultural treasures before its eyes", he says, and to avoid these consequences, Fanon suggests paying attention to the countryside and focusing on educating the masses "who can lead themselves by themselves."

غلاف بشرة سوداؤ.. أقنعة بيضاء
The book "Black Skin... "White Masks" by Dr. Frantz Fanon is one of the most influential books in postcolonial studies (social media)

Business & Impact

Fanon's influence exceeded his limited production in number, as his intellectual activity lasted only about a decade, something that does not compare to other thinkers, according to John Drabinsky, who edited a lengthy essay on Fannon in the Stanford Book of Philosophy.

Fanon does not seem to have taken into account the profound impact of his ideas, whose central concern was the liberation of man, since, as quoted by his wife, he hoped to continue working as a psychiatrist and did not aspire to be a politician.

His book "Black Skin... White Masks" and "The Wretched in the Earth" are his most important works, while the rest of his books were collections of separate articles and studies, some of which were published posthumously, although his impact was great, as activists in Latin America relied on his visions, as happened in Africa and South Asia.

At the academic level, his thought influenced Edward Said, Ali Shariati and others, and his influence in cultural studies was tangible, and his concepts were used to address issues of race, nation, immigration and others, and the most prominent works of Fanon were:

  • "Black skin. White Masks", published in 1952.
  • "The Fifth Year of the Algerian Revolution", published in 1959.
  • "The Wretched in the Earth", published in 1961.
  • "For the African Revolution", published in 1964.
  • "Texts on Dispossession and Freedom – 2011 Collection".
  • "Texts on Dispossession and Freedom – 2018 Business Collection 2".


Fanon died on the sixth of December 1961 in the United States of leukemia at the age of 36, and his body was transferred to Tunisia and from there to Algerian territory according to his desire, where he was buried in the Martyrs Square in Ain Karma in the El Tarf region northeastern Algeria.

It should be noted that because of the despotic nature of the French during that era, they refused to allow his body to be buried in Algeria, As Allah would have it, he was buried in the Martyrs Square in Ain Karma (Martyr Square In Algeria) which was at that time part of Tunisia.  In later times it became part of the Northeastern region of Algeria.  So not only was he buried in Algeria as he wished, he was honored to be buried in the Martyrs Square.  

Grave Site of Ibrahim Omar Frantz Fanon

                                                 The Doctor Ibrahim Frantz Fanon

الله يرحمه ويغفر ذنوبه

آمين يا رب

Full article:  Frantz Fanon. French thinker who fought against colonialism in Alge...

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Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 27, 2024 at 2:17pm

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Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 27, 2024 at 2:36pm

This century's most compelling theorist of racism and colonialism' Angela Davis 'Fanon is our contemporary

Black Skin, White Masks - Fanon, Frantz, and Philcox, Richard (Translated by)

... In clear language, in words that can only have been written in the cool heat of rage, Fanon showed us the internal theatre of racism' Deborah Levy Frantz Fanon's urgent, dynamic critique of the effects of racism on the psyche is a landmark study of the black experience in a white world. Drawing on his own life and his work as a psychoanalyst to explore how colonialism's subjects internalize its prejudices, eventually emulating the 'white masks' of their oppressors, it established Fanon as a revolutionary anti-colonialist thinker. 'So hard to put down ... a brilliant, vivid and hurt mind, walking the thin line that separates effective outrage from despair' The New York Times Book Review

Black Skin, White Masks by Frantz Fanon - Alibris

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 27, 2024 at 2:39pm

This century's most compelling theorist of racism and colonialism' Angela Davis Written at the height of the

The Wretched of the Earth - Fanon, Frantz, and West, Cornel (Introduction by), and Philcox, Richard (Translated by)

Algerian war for independence from French colonial rule and first published in 1961, Frantz Fanon's Wretched of the Earth has provided inspiration for anti-colonial movements ever since, analysing the role of class, race, national culture and violence in the struggle for freedom. With power and anger, Fanon makes clear the economic and psychological degradation inflicted by imperialism. It was Fanon, himself a psychotherapist, who exposed the connection between colonial war and mental disease, who showed how the fight for freedom must be combined with building a national culture, and who showed the way ahead, through revolutionary violence, to socialism. 'In clear language, in words that can only have been written in the cool heat of rage, he showed us the internal theatre of racism' Deborah Lev

The wretched of the earth by Frantz Fanon - Alibris

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 27, 2024 at 2:44pm

Frantz Fanon was born in Martinique, a French colony, in 1925. As a young man, he volunteered to fight in de

The Rebel's Clinic: The Revolutionary Lives of Frantz Fanon - Shatz, Adam

Gaulle's army for the liberation of France, and trained to become a doctor and psychiatrist. His experiences as a black man under French colonial rule had a profound effect on him. In 1952, he wrote Black Skin, White Masks, a vital analysis of the effects of racism on the human psyche. He was later re-assigned to a hospital in French Algeria. It was here that he became involved in the rebellion of the National Liberation Front (FLN), who fought to break free from colonial power. Fanon's work for the FLN as a propagandist and psychiatrist became highly contentious. His final work, The Wretched of the Earth, was published in 1961 just before he died at the age of 36. It has proved to be one of the most controversial yet influential books of our time. The Rebel's Clinic is a searing biography of the short and harrowing life of Frantz Fanon, and a brilliant, nuanced exploration of his ideas, whose legacy is still so powerful. In an age when debates about race and the effects of colonialism are ever more urgent, The Rebel's Clinic is a profoundly relevant book

The Rebel's Clinic: The Revolutionary Lives of Frantz Fanon by Adam...

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 27, 2024 at 3:19pm

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 28, 2024 at 2:23pm

Ibrahim Omar Frantz Fanon

Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 28, 2024 at 9:49pm
Psychiatrist and anti-colonial cultural theorist, Frantz Fanon was born in the French West Indies, in Fort-de-
No photo description available.
Black Doc on Ibrahim Omar Frantz Fanon by Sister Christina Ali: 
France, Martinique on July 20, 1925. He was one of the first writers to examine the damaging effects of colonialism on black and brown people. And the first writer to apply Psychology, political theory and literary criticism.
In 1943, Fanon left for Dominica to enlist in the Free French forces. He served in Morocco and Algeria in 1944 and 1945, and then participated in the battle for Alsace. Though Fanon was commended for his bravery, the racism he experienced in the army led him to reject WWII as a white man’s war. He returned to Fort-de-France committed to his identity as a black man, rather than a European. In 1946, he enrolled in the University of Lyon where he studied psychiatry. With this degree, Fanon applied psychiatric theories to his personal experiences as an Europeanized West Indian. This application is seen in his published book, Black Skin, White Masks, 1952. A year later, he was assigned to head the psychiatric division of a hospital in Algeria. He joined the Algerian liberation movement when the insurrection against French rule began in 1954.
His subsequent books, Studies in a Dying Colonialism (1959) and The Wretched of the Earth (1961), would give a voice to the Third World liberation struggles of that time. With as varied disciplines as psychology, sociology, economics, and politics, all of Fanon’s works grapple with social justice and racism on an internal level as well as in the interaction between the colonizers and colonized.
In 1961, Ibrahim Omar  Fanon was diagnosed with leukemia, and was sent to the United States for treatment. At the early age of thirty-six, #FrantzFanon died in Bethesda, Maryland on December 6, 1961. His body was sent back to Tunisia to be buried.
Ibrahim Omar Fanon died on the sixth of December 1961 in the United States of leukemia at the age of 36, and his body was transferred to Tunisia and from there to Algerian territory according to his desire, where he was buried in the Martyrs Square in Ain Karma in the El Tarf region northeastern Algeria.
Franz Fanon is required reading for anyone wanting to understand the mental and emotional impact of colonialism and neo-colonialism on oppressed people's. Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth and Black Skin, White Masks top my mandatory reading list. While it is not documented that Fanon ever embraced Islam, he nonetheless adopted the name Ibrahim out of respect for the Muslims fighting against the French for an independent Algeria.
Comment by Bilal Mahmud المكافح المخلص on February 29, 2024 at 7:43am

Sister Christina Ali

Black Doc on Ibrahim Omar Frantz Fanon by Sister Christina Ali: 


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