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Allah completed the religion through him and the proof is His saying, He, the Most High: «This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]
He (pbuh) did not pass away until after Allah had completed the religion and the favor through him and had sent down to him His saying, He the Most High:
«This day, I have completed your religion for you, perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]
This aayah came down to the Prophet sallallahu`alaihiwasallam while he was performing the standing in `Arafah during the Farewell Hajj on the Day of Jumu`ah. He sallallahu`alaihiwasallam lived after it for a short time, and then moved on to the highest company (of angels).
This aayah contains a testimony from Allah, the Perfect and Most High, that this religion is complete and that it covers everything of benefit to the servants, and that it contains a solution for all of their issues and problems until the Establishment of the Hour. It is suitable for every time and place. It does not need any other legislation after it or any other book to come down, or any other messenger to be sent after the Messenger sallallahu`alaihiwasallam. So, there is no matter to be found, and there is no event that will occur, until the Day of Resurrection, except that, in the Legislation revealed to Muhammad sallallahu`alaihiwasallam there is a solution for it, and the ruling concerning it.
However, the matter relates back to who is competent to extract evidence and derive proof, rulings and issues. If there are to be found ahlul-`ilm (people of knowledge) and people qualified to make ijtihaad (personal deductions and rulings) who fulfill the conditions of ijtihaad, then indeed, this legislation is complete and contains a solution for all problems. Deficiency only comes about from us from the aspect of deficiency in (our) knowledge, and ability to fully understand what Allah, the Perfect and Most High, has sent down. From the aspect of desires, that there occurs a case of the following of desires, which diverts a person away from the Truth. Otherwise this religion is fully suitable, comprehensive and complete. Allah has sufficed the Islaamic nation with it until the establishment of the hour if it acts upon it (the religion) correctly and refers back to it in its affairs. He, the Most High, said:
“Believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those from among you who are invested with authority; and then if you were to dispute among yourselves about anything refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you indeed believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more commendable in the end.” (4:59)
Referring back to Allah is to refer back to the Book of Allah, and referring back to the Messenger after his passing away is to refer back to his Sunnah. He, the Most High, said:
« And whatever you disagree about then its judgment is to be referred to Allah...» [42:10]
This aayah contains a refutation of those who make accusations against the Islaamic Legislation of its having shortcomings, or of its being deficient, (these accusations coming) from the atheists and the evil heretics, or from the “semi students” whose understanding falls short in being able to understand the hidden wisdoms of the Islaamic Legislation. Therefore, these (foolish people) ascribe deficiency to the Islaamic Legislation and they do not know, that the deficiency is with themselves alone.
So it (this aayah) contains a refutation against those who accuse the Islaamic Legislation of deficiency, and, that it does not cover all the needs and welfare of the servants, and all matters of the servants until the Establishment of the Hour. Or those who say: “It was specific to a certain olden times,” – because there are many ignorant people who, when it is said to them, “This is the Islaamic ruling,” they say, “that was in the time of the Messenger and the initial time. As for now, conditions have changed, and the matters have altered; and the legislated rulings were for people who have now passed away, and for problems that have come to an end.”
They say this, and this is disbelief in Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, and it is a denial of His Saying, He the Most High:
«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]
Allah completed the religion for this nation until the Hour is established for every time, and place and for every generation of mankind. It also contains a refutation of the innovators, those who introduce worship from themselves, and ascribe it to the religion, when it has no proof from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger sallallahu`alaihi wa sallam.
Rather they just introduce it in accordance with what they deem to be good or based upon blindly following others whom they have good thoughts about, from the people of false ideas and people with their own goals and desires. So therefore, they introduce worship into the religion, which Allah has sent down no proof for. He sallallahu`alaihiwasallam said:
«Whoever introduces into this affair of ours that which is not from it, then it is rejected.»
And he `alaihissalaatuwasallaam said:
«And beware of newly introduced matters, for every newly introduced matter is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.»
Whoever introduces acts of worship which have no proof from the Book of Allah nor from the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, then he is accusing this religion of not being complete and he wishes to complete the religion himself. He is not actually acknowledging the fact that Allah has completed it.
Whatever was not religion in the time of the Prophet sallallahu`alaihiwasallam will never be religion after him. So this contains a refutation of these groups: The group who say that Islaam is not suitable for every time, or those who innovate newly invented innovations which have no proof from the Book of Allah, nor the Sunnah of His Messenger, and who ascribe them to the religion.
The aayah (from Surah al-Ma-idah) contains a refutation of them because the religion was completed by Allah, the Perfect and Most High. So there is no scope for addition in it, nor for reduction from it. There is no scope for raising doubts, nor seeking to obscure the issue by saying that it is not suitable for the people in these later times.
«This day, I have completed your religion for you.» [5:3]
It is well known, that this is the Speech of Allah, the Perfect and Most High. He is the Most Truthful One of those who speak. He, the Most High, said:
«I perfected My blessings upon you, and am pleased with Islaam as your Religion.» [5:3]
This was the last of that which came down to the Prophet sallallahu`alaihiwasallam and it is a testimony from the Lord of the whole of the Creation for this religion that it is complete, comprehensive, and fully suitable for every time and place. So His saying (in this aayah) is an address to this nation, from the first of it to the last of it, and it is not just an address to the first generation alone. Rather it is an address to the whole of the nation until the Hour is established.
As for ijmaa` (consensus), the whole nation are agreed in consensus that he sallallahu`alaihiwasallam passed away. No one disagrees about this, except the people of false beliefs, those who say, that the Messenger did not die. They negate death from the Messenger sallallahu`alaihiwasallam. This is baseless speech and speech which is clearly rejected. It is refuted by what has been experienced, and what is clearly the case. For the Messenger sallallahu`alaihiwasallam indeed passed away amongst his Companions. He was bathed, shrouded, had the funeral prayer prayed over him and he was buried. Can these actions be carried out on a person who is still alive? He sallallahu`alaihiwasallam was treated as one who had died. He was washed, shrouded and prayed over. Then he sallallahu`alaihiwasallam was buried in his grave.
This is the way of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, with regards to His Creation. Where are the Messengers who came before him? What occurred to him occurred to the Messengers before him. They died. He is one of them, so he died. This is by consensus of the Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah. No one disagrees about this except the people of false beliefs, those who seek to attach themselves to the Messenger sallallahu`alaihiwasallam and seek deliverance through him besides Allah, and say: “He is still alive.”
 Reported by al-Bukhaaree no. 2697 and Muslim no. 1718 from a hadeeth of `Aa.ishah, radiyallahu `anhaa.
 Reported by Abu Daawood, Ahmad, at-Tirmithee, and Ibn Maajah from the famous hadeeth of `Irbaad ibn Saariyyah, radiyallahu `anhu. [al-Albanee declared it saheeh].